Nitrous oxide, commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, nitro, or NOS is a chemical compound with the formula N2O. Nitrous oxide is a colourless, non-toxic gas with a faint, sweet odour. It is also known as “laughing gas” due to the euphoric effects of inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic.
It is an oxide of nitrogen. At room temperature, it is a colourless, non-flammable gas, with a slightly sweet odour and taste. Nitrous oxide supports combustion by releasing the dipolar bonded oxygen radical, thus it can rekindle a glowing splint. N2O is inert at room temperature and has few reactions. At elevated temperature its reactivity increases, and it turns into a powerful oxidizer similar to molecular oxygen.
Nitrous oxide reacts with ozone in the stratosphere. Nitrous oxide is the main naturally occurring regulator of stratospheric ozone. Nitrous oxide is a major greenhouse gas. Considered over a period of 100 years, it has 298 times more impact per unit weight than carbon dioxide. Thus, despite its low concentration, nitrous oxide is the fourth largest contributor to these greenhouse gases. It ranks below water vapour, carbon dioxide, and methane. Keeping nitrous oxide under check helps to curb green house gas emission. Nitrous oxide gives rise to Nitric oxide on reaction with oxygen atoms, and this NO in turn reacts with ozone. As a result, it is the main naturally occurring regulator of stratospheric ozone. It is also a major greenhouse gas and air pollutant.
It is used in surgery and dentistry for its anaesthetic and analgesic effects. Hospitals administer nitrous oxide as one of the anaesthetic drugs delivered by anaesthetic machines. Nitrous oxide is a weak general anaesthetic, and so is generally not used alone in general anaesthesia. It is on the WHO Model List of Essential Medicines, one of the most important medication needed in a health system.
Inhalation of nitrous oxide is frequently used to relieve pain associated with childbirth, trauma, oral surgery, and acute coronary syndrome (includes heart attacks). Its use during labour has been shown to be a safe and effective aid for women wanting to give birth without an epidural. Its use for acute coronary syndrome is of unknown benefit. Nitrous oxide has been depicted to be effective in treating a number of addictions, including alcohol withdrawal. It is also gaining interest as a substitute gas for carbon dioxide in laparoscopic surgery. It has been found to be as safe as carbon dioxide with better pain relief.
The major safety hazards of nitrous oxide come from the fact that it is a compressed liquefied gas, an asphyxiation risk, and a dissociative anaesthetic. Exposure to nitrous oxide causes short-term decreases in mental performance, audiovisual ability, and manual dexterity. Abusing nitrous oxide can lead to oxygen deprivation resulting in loss of blood pressure, fainting and even heart attacks. Long-term exposure can cause vitamin B12 deficiency, numbness, reproductive side effects (in pregnant females), and other problems. There have also been accidents where nitrous oxide decomposition in plumbing has led to the explosion of large tanks.
Liquid nitrous oxide acts as a good solvent for many organic compounds.
The product purity is not less than 99.5 %
A type (1.74 m3), D type (7m3) and the cylinder pressure is 150 kg/cm2
Nitrous Oxide is supplied to various surgical suites for its anesthetic functions during pre-operative procedures.